Blurb: Teaching experience, qualification and location have some influence on teachers’ subject-matter content knowledge. The widely held assumption regarding teaching experience is that long service leads to increased teacher knowledge. A similar view is held for qualification. Qualification is regarded to be directly proportional to teacher knowledge. However, teaching experience and qualification do not necessarily bring about superior teacher knowledge. Of course, within the first few year of a teacher’s career, teaching experience brings about increase in teacher knowledge. Qualification too positively influences teacher knowledge only but the effect is seen among the lower qualifications. From Diploma, higher qualification does not bring about significant increase in teacher knowledge. The effect of increased teaching experience and higher qualification can become neutral or retrogress depending on the location of the school in which the teacher is teaching. Location is usually not considered as a predictor of teacher knowledge though it does. Teacher knowledge of teachers in deprived areas and their counterparts in non-deprived areas have been found to be significantly different irrespective of qualification and teaching experience. Employers should therefore measure teacher effectiveness and remunerate teachers accordingly rather than strictly tying remuneration to long service and qualification.
ABSTRACT: Though the achievement of pupils in Science is generally poor, pupils in rural communities have relatively poorer achievements in science. Pupils in rural communities do not enjoy the best of facilities and amenities that support the learning of science, relative to their counterpart in urban communities. However, the pupils in rural communities can enjoy science lessons, if in spite of poor infrastructure, shortages of teachers, and inadequate teaching and learning materials, available science teachers depend on pupils’ pre-conceptions, allow pupils to dictate the direction and pace of science lessons, and always engage pupils in activities, such that the learning of science is fun
ABSTRACT: Online education has the potential of providing quality continuing higher education to adult learners and ensures that people gain education as and when they need it. However, cost and prestige are making online education unattractive to those who need it the most. These limitations can be resolved, when government provides a national framework for online education, subsidize accreditation, and grant scholarships and student loans for students in online Colleges and Universities.
ABSTRACT: One of the sectors which fosters national development is education by ensuring the development of a functional human resource. The institution of strong educational structures leads to a society populated by enlightened people, who can cause positive economic progress and social transformation. A Positive social transformation and its associated economic growth are achieved as the people apply the skills they learned while they were in school. The acquisition of these skills is facilitated by one individual we all 'teacher'. For this reason, nations seeking economic and social developments need not ignore teachers and their role in national development....
ABSTRACT: Rene Descartes is famous for developing a method for constructing knowledge and discovery truth which replaced Aristotle’s Prior and Posterior Analytics. The general view is that Descartes wanted a general method that would produce undoubtable truth. While this may be true, it appears that Rene Descartes had an ulterior motive for publishing Discourse on the Method and the others. This article discusses Descartes’ rejection of syllogism, the method and the Cartesian dualism. It uses these discussions to point to Descartes’ motivation for publishing his works.
ABSTRACT: Junior High School integrated science teachers’ knowledge is a variable that determines the effectiveness of the Junior High School integrated science teachers. Junior High School integrated science teachers’ effectiveness is not very often determined by output of work, but by Junior High School integrated science teachers’ qualification. Ghana Education Service uses West African Senior Secondary Certificate (WASSCE) or Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSSCE) as the minimum qualification needed for employment as non-professional Junior High School integrated science teachers. This arrangement raises an issue relating to quality. Do the WASSCE/SSSCE certificate holders possess Junior High School integrated science knowledge similar to Junior High School teachers whose qualifications are better? To answer this, this survey was designed to find out find out whether differences exist in Junior High School teachers’ knowledge of integrated science based on their qualifications. In this survey, 57 Junior High School integrated science teachers were sampled from 83 Junior High School integrated science Teachers in the Assin North municipal. The Junior High School integrated science teachers’ knowledge was tested using Junior High School Integrated Science Teachers’ Knowledge Assessment Tool. The scores obtained were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found that beyond SSSCE/WASSCE level, teachers’ qualification does not bring about significant gains in Junior High School integrated science teachers’ knowledge of integrated science.
ABSTRACT: Ghana’s Ministry of Education acknowledges that, having scientific literate citizenry is essential for national development, and so has been making efforts in that direction. However, in spite of the efforts to get pupils in basic schools to understand and use scientific knowledge, the pupils have been underperforming in integrated science in the Basic Education Certificate Examination. The problem has been attributed to inadequate teachers, teacher apathy, poor teacher remuneration among others. The state has been providing spacious and good classroom, teaching and learning materials, paying teachers very well, and yet, pupils are not doing well in science. The problem is, science teachers are not employing the teaching methods that harness the inherent nature of children and base upon it to bring out the best in the pupils. Children learn by imitating and curiously exploring, so as to gain experiences. The traditional method of teaching, used in many classrooms do not support the ways by which pupils naturally learn. A shift from the traditional approach of teaching to the constructivist approach, has the potential of enhancing the performance of pupils in science in Ghanaian schools. The reason is that, in a constructivist’s classroom, the innate curiosity of pupils, with respect to the things in the world and how these things work is triggered. Also, pupils become active and goal oriented, through the utilization of their inherent desire to explore, understand new situations and experiences, and master them. To make this possible, Ministry of Education through the national council for tertiary education, should develop a national teacher education policy framework that would state the minimum number of methodology courses for each subject and spread practicum over the three years of study to enhance the pedagogical skills of teachers.
ABSTRACT: The assumption associated with teaching experience is that, increased teaching experience leads to increased teacher knowledge. To find out it this assumption is true for Junior High School integrated science teachers, and also determine whether not the effect of teaching experience on teacher knowledge varies in deprived and non-deprived areas, 57 Junior High School integrated science teachers from deprived and non-deprived areas were sampled from 83 Junior High School integrated science teachers. In the survey, the sampled teachers were asked to complete a 30 item test meant to assess their knowledge of Junior High School integrated science. The study found that teaching experience influences Junior High School integrated science teachers’ knowledge. Junior High School integrated science teachers’ knowledge showed a graphical variation with the number of years they have spent teaching. The effect of experience on Junior High School integrated science teachers’ knowledge in deprived and non-deprived areas was as diverse as the location themselves.
West African Examination Council’s (WAEC) Chief Examiners for chemistry have observed that most Senior High School students exhibit poor mastery of concepts in organic chemistry. The Chief Examiners recommended that chemistry teachers start teaching organic chemistry early and give more practice questions to students. In order understand the challenges students have, regarding the organic chemistry, the study aimed at finding out what students say about teaching and learning organic chemistry in Senior High Schools in Ghana. The survey employed a mixed methods approach to seek the views of students on the organic chemistry aspect of the Senior High School chemistry syllabus. The population for the study was 348 students. The students were, science and mathematics students at Foso College of education, level 100 students at the faculty of Science and the Department of Science and Mathematics Education at University of Cape Coast and students attending remedial classes at Secondi/Takoradi Metropolis. The sample consisted of 32 remedial students at Secondi/Takoradi Metropolis, 132 Mathematics and Science students at Foso College of Education, Assin Foso, and 71 level 100 students in the faculty of Science and the Department of Science and Mathematics Education of University of Cape Coast. Two instruments were used to collect data from the sample. The instruments were a focus group interview schedule, which was used to collect qualitative data, and a Senior High School Organic Chemistry Perception Assessment Tool. The students said, though they have a negative perception about organic chemistry aspect of the Senior High School chemistry syllabus, organic chemistry does not make them nervous nor bored, because they find organic chemistry interesting. They are also said they want to study organic chemistry, and even do it on their own, not for the reason of passing exams but for life. However, teachers’ ill affinity towards organic chemistry seriously affected their understanding of organic chemistry. Chemistry teachers would have to understand organic chemistry and see the organic chemistry aspect of the Senior High School chemistry syllabus as an essential component of chemistry education, if they want their students to learn organic chemistry with ease.
ABSTRACT:Even though both science and religion seek to generate knowledge about the universe, they are in conflict. The conflict dates back to the sixteenth century when Galileo Galilei published a paper in support of a religiously suppressed heliocentric universe proposed by Copernicus. Theologians feared Galileo‟s pronouncements will throw abase the sacred text the church derived its authority from. This was the first major contribution to the science and religion conflict. Darwin‟s „Origin of Species‟ was also considered a counter theory to the origin of life expressed in sacred texts. Darwin‟s theory of evolution was a sharp contradiction to the theologian‟s version of the origin of life. The theologians in the United State of America opposed the inclusion of Darwin‟s theory of evolution in the school curriculum. Like Galileo‟s, Darwin‟s theory of evolution challenged Godinspired-knowledge and so was not tolerated in religious circles. In the early twentieth century, Lamitre‟s controversial big-bang theory that appeared to describe events that took place when God said in the Bible „let there be light‟, came to add to the science and religion conflict. At the forefront of the science and religion conflict are the constantly opposing philosophies Biblical literalism and scientific materialism. Scientific materialism and Biblical literalism are the major relative forces that have fueled and sustained the science-religion conflict.
ABSTRACT: Online education has become a viable alternative route to securing higher education for many. Online education is only viable when it has been carefully designed to meet the needs of variety of learners. Issues relating to the design of online courses have therefore become very important, since poorly designed online courses have the potential of casting a slur on online courses in general, especially in Africa where due to poor Information Communication and Technology (ICT) infrastructure the traditional learning modes are favored. Poorly designed online courses are as a result of failure to carefully consider the elements that make a good and attractive online course. This article shares thoughts on the four major elements (learning theories, instructional design, subject-matter and end-user- interface) that when carefully considered make a good online course and how these elements can be utilized to design a good online course.
ABSTRACT: Some studies into the use of smartphones in tertiary education institutions in Ghana have reported that most students do not use their smartphones to support their studies. The purpose of this study was to find out if pre-service teachers also do not use their smartphones to support their studies. It was also to design and implement a strategy for encouraging pre-service teachers to use their smartphones for study related activities. The design used to achieve these purposes is a quasi-experimental design. A total of 183 pre-service teachers were used for the study. Of this, 140 pre-service teachers were purposively selected for the implementation of the designed strategy for encouraging pre-service teachers to use their smartphones for study related activities. The instruments used to collect data were; Smartphone Use Questionnaire (SUQ), Social Media Use Questionnaire (SMUQ) and Shared/Read Study Related Material Questionnaire (SSRMQ). The study found that WhatsApp application can be used as a means of encouraging pre-service teachers to use their smartphones for study related activities. It also found that a deliberate and systematic introduction of educational resources to pre-service teachers via WhatsApp can encourage pre-service teachers to use their smartphones for study related activities.
ABSTRACT: This study adopted the flipped classroom approach in assisting basic seven pupils to understand the concept of density. The type of research design used was the action research design. Purposively sampling technique was used to select 20 pupils. Pre-test and post-test items on density were developed and administered to pupils. Performances of pupils in the two tests were analysed with statistical tools. When scores of the two tests were computed and critically compared, it was found that the mean score and standard deviation for the pre-test was far below the mean score and standard deviation for pupils post-test. Post-tests results of pupils showed there pupils’ performance improved due to the application of the flipped classroom approach. The results confirmed that the use of flipped classroom to assist the pupils in understanding the concept of density was very effective. From the study, proximity of schools to pupils’ home has an influence on the effectiveness of the application of the FCA. FCA suites pupils who do not have to travel long distance on foot to school better than those who travel long distances on foot to school. It was recommended for stakeholders to consider using the flipped classroom approach as one of the innovative teaching strategy especially for pupils in need of learning help.